Reduced Graphene Oxide
• Higher aspect ratio
• Ideal porosity
• Excellent electro-absorption capabilities
• Excellent thermal conductivity
• Excellent electrical conductivity
• Excellent optical transparency
• Higher tensile strength
Reduced Graphene Oxide Specifications and Details
Reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO), as the name suggests, is a compound (reduced form of graphene oxide) that attains by the synthesis of graphene oxide by reducing oxygen in it. Graphene oxide is a compound of graphene that consists of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen, which undergoes thermal, chemical, and many other rigorous methods to remove the oxygen groups. Ultimately it eliminates the demerits of graphene oxide and restoring conductivity.
The reduction of graphene is one of the most cost-effective methods to reach the properties of pristine graphene. The initial component is graphene, which is synthesis from graphite, is a single-layer hexagonal structure compound that is an allotrope of carbon. It is considered a strong material on earth and has numerous applications from defense to electronics and textiles. Usually, reduced graphene oxide is available in powder form; however, the researchers can perform dispersion by their requirements or buy the dispersed state.
The client can purchase it in powder and disperse form at a low-cost and efficient price. It is available per gram or kg and is customizable according to the client's needs if the order is in bulk.
- Carbon (C): 91%
- Oxygen (O): < 8%
- Sulphur (S): < 1%
- Hydrogen (H): 2%
- Nitrogen (N): 0.4%
- Thickness: 0.8nm – 2nm
- Colour: Black
- Product Purity: >98.8%
- Number of layers: 3-6 layers
- Lateral dimension: 10 microns
- BET Surface area: > 150 sq. meter/gm
- Bulk Density: 0.48g/cm3
Properties of Reduced Graphene Oxide
• Chemical Formula – CxHyOz
• Electrical Conductivity – Eliminating the oxygen groups by reduction process fills in the gaps of those molecules, and unrestricted bond forms between the compound molecules. That helps in the effortless conduction of electricity and thus makes the rGO a good conductor of electricity.
• Thermal Resistance – Similarly, the continuous bond of the molecules restricts heat from passing through them. This property is one that it inherits from the original compound, as all the other forms of graphene or graphite are also heat resistant.
• Transparency – rGO significantly absorbs low levels of light, thus making it optically transparent. Therefore, combining it with any polymers gives an excellent result, making the product inherit graphene's strength and the polymer's properties.
• Insoluble In Water – As reduction eliminates the oxygen groups, the compound becomes insoluble in water. Hence, it is useful in applications that require water resistance.
Applications of Reduced Graphene Oxide
• It is useful in sensors such as Biomedical, Chemical, and biosensors.
• It has been used in the research and development process to make new inventions or revise existing ones.
• It is useful in lithium and solar batteries, as well as Photovoltaic cells, as it helps to hold and store electrical energy.
• It is helpful as a superconductor and supercapacitor in electronic devices.
• It helps make membranes, PCBs, and coating films.
How to use Reduced Graphene Oxide?
• Take powder in a container as per the experimental requirement.
• Choose a solvent according to the requirements of the experiment. As reduced graphene oxide does not dissolve or disperse in water, you can use acetone, distilled water, methanol, or ethanol as solvents.
• Mix the solvent with the surfactant, pour this solution into the product, and then use an ultrasonic probe to mix the compounds and make them available for use.
Safety Measures of Reduced Graphene Oxide
• Graphene and its types, including reduced graphene oxide are hazardous to health as per the EPA and government guidelines. Therefore, researchers should avoid regular exposure to it.
• As the particles are in nano size, it accumulates in the respiratory tract and kidneys on inhalation or ingestion. That can cause unnecessary irritation and damage or failure of the organs. The body treats these materials as foreign agents, and since they are not bacteria (they are inert), the body fails while fighting them, thus damaging the organs that it wanted to protect.
• While using the product, the operator must wear a piece of complete protective equipment.
• Use of hand gloves, masks, PPE kits, goggles, face shields is necessary while handling the product.
• If the product spills on the surface, use a damp cloth to clean it. Do not air blow it as it may spread to unwanted places.
• Do not smell the product nor bring it closer to the eyes or mouth. Always make sure that the operation place has adequate ventilation and well lighting.
• On direct exposure of the product to the eyes, wash them immediately with cold water. Do not rub them. Take medical help if any irritation persists.
• On inhalation of the product, rush to open air and breathe briskly. If the researcher is unconscious, give mouth-to-mouth respiration and rush to the hospital immediately in an emergency.
• Similarly, one should wash their mouth with clean water and gargle on ingestion of the product. The operator might likely vomit, which is fine. However, if excessive vomiting persists, run to the hospital immediately.
• Exposure of the product to common people is hazardous. Therefore, follow the government regulations to dispose of the residue product safely.
How to produce rGo?
Reduced graphene oxide is a graphene oxide (GO) derivative with some oxygen-containing functional groups removed, resulting in a more electrically conductive and mechanically robust material. rGO is typically produced through a reduction process, which involves using chemical, thermal, or electrochemical methods to remove the oxygen functionalities present in GO. Here are some common methods for producing rGO:
1. Chemical reduction: This is the most common method for producing rGO. Various reducing agents, such as hydrazine hydrate, sodium borohydride, and ascorbic acid, can reduce the oxygen-containing functional groups in GO. The reaction usually occurs under mild heating or room temperature, resulting in a black rGO powder or suspension.
2. Thermal reduction: In this method, GO is subjected to high temperatures (usually above 1000°C) in an inert or reducing atmosphere (e.g., argon or hydrogen). The high temperature causes the oxygen-containing functional groups to decompose, yielding rGO. Thermal reduction often results in a more thermally stable and electrically conductive rGO than chemically reduced rGO.
3. Electrochemical reduction: This process involves applying an electrical potential to GO, usually dispersed in an electrolyte solution, which causes the reduction of the oxygen-containing functional groups. The benefit of this method is that it allows for better control over the reduction process by tuning the applied potential.
4. Photochemical reduction: In this method, GO is exposed to light (e.g., ultraviolet or visible light) in the presence of a photocatalyst or photo-reducing agent. The light triggers a reduction reaction, leading to the formation of rGO. This method is considered environmentally friendly and offers the potential for large-scale Production.
5. Green reduction methods: Researchers have also explored green and eco-friendly methods for producing rGO, using natural reducing agents such as plant extracts, bacteria, and other biological materials. These methods aim to provide a more sustainable and environmentally friendly approach to rGO production.
Once rGO is produced, it can be further processed and utilized in various applications, such as energy storage, electronics, and composite materials, due to its enhanced electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties compared to GO.
Elemental Analysis of rGO
Elemental Analysis of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) typically involves determining the relative amounts of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and other elements in the material. rGO primarily consists of carbon, with fewer oxygen-containing functional groups than graphene oxide (GO). The elemental composition of rGO varies depending on the reduction method and the degree of reduction.
Here is a general overview of the elemental composition of rGO:
1. Carbon (C): The main element in rGO, carbon atoms form the hexagonal lattice structure that gives graphene unique properties. The carbon content of rGO can range from 85% to over 95%, depending on the reduction method and degree of reduction. The carbon content in rGO is typically higher than in GO due to the reduction process, which removes oxygen functionalities.
2. Oxygen (O): Oxygen is present in rGO in the form of residual oxygen-containing functional groups, such as hydroxyls, epoxides, and carbonyls. The oxygen content in rGO is lower than in GO, as the reduction process aims to remove these functionalities. The oxygen content in rGO can vary widely, from 5% to over 20%, depending on the reduction method and degree of reduction.
3. Hydrogen (H): Hydrogen is usually present in rGO in trace amounts. It may be found in the form of hydrogen atoms bonded to carbon or oxygen atoms or as residual water molecules absorbed in the material. Hydrogen content in rGO is typically below 2%.
4. Other elements: Depending on the reduction method and the precursors used, other elements such as nitrogen, sulfur, or trace metals may be present in rGO. These impurities can affect the material's properties, and their presence should be minimized during the synthesis and purification processes.
Elemental Analysis of rGO can be performed using various analytical techniques, such as:
1. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS): This technique is widely used to determine the elemental composition and chemical bonding states in rGO. XPS can provide information on the carbon-to-oxygen ratio, which indicates the degree of reduction.
2. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX or EDS): Often combined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), this technique can provide elemental composition information and detect impurities in rGO.
3. Combustion elemental analysis (CHN analysis): This technique involves combusting the sample in the presence of oxygen and then analyzing the resulting gases (CO2, H2O, and N2) to determine the elemental composition. This method provides quantitative information about the sample's carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen content.
4. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) or mass spectrometry (ICP-MS): These techniques can detect and quantify trace metal impurities in rGO samples.
Quality Control of rGO
Quality control of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is crucial for ensuring the material's performance in various applications, such as energy storage, electronics, and composite materials. Several characterization techniques can be employed to assess the quality of rGO, focusing on aspects such as the degree of reduction, structural and morphological properties, and impurities.
1. Degree of reduction:
The degree of reduction indicates the extent to which oxygen-containing functional groups have been removed from graphene oxide (GO) during the reduction process. Methods to assess the degree of reduction include:
a. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS): This technique one can use to determine the elemental composition of rGO, specifically the carbon-to-oxygen (C/O) ratio, which provides information about the degree of reduction.
b. Raman spectroscopy: Raman spectra of rGO typically exhibit two prominent peaks, the G peak (related to the in-plane vibrations of carbon atoms) and the D peak (associated with structural defects or disorder). The intensity ratio of the D peak to the G peak (ID/IG) can indicate the reduction level and the structural quality of rGO.
2. Structural and morphological properties:
Analyzing the structure and morphology of rGO is essential for understanding its performance in specific applications. Methods to evaluate these properties include:
a. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM): These techniques can provide information about the surface morphology and thickness of rGO, revealing features such as wrinkles, folds, and the overall homogeneity of the material.
b. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM): TEM can be used to visualize the lattice structure of rGO at the atomic level, providing information about defects and the degree of graphitization. c. X-ray diffraction (XRD): Through this technique, one can determine the crystallinity and interlayer spacing of rGO, providing information about the level of reduction and structural changes compared to GO.
1. Electrical and thermal properties:
Since rGO is used in various applications for its electrical and thermal conductivity, assessing these properties is essential for quality control:
a. Four-point probe or van der Pauw method: These techniques can be used to measure the sheet resistance and electrical conductivity of rGO, which are important indicators of its performance in electronic devices and energy storage applications.
b. Thermal conductivity measurements: Various methods, such as the laser flash method or the 3ω method, can be used to measure the thermal conductivity of rGO, which is crucial for applications involving thermal management and heat dissipation.
2. Impurities and defects:
The presence of impurities and defects in rGO can adversely affect its performance in specific applications. Methods to detect impurities and defects include:
a. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX or EDS): This technique can provide information about the elemental composition of rGO and detect impurities, such as trace metals or residual reducing agents.
b. Combustion elemental analysis (CHN analysis): This method can determine the carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen content in rGO, which can help identify residual functional groups or impurities. By employing these characterization techniques, researchers and manufacturers can ensure the quality of rGO and optimize its performance in various applications.
How Graphene Oxide to Reduced Graphene Oxide?
The conversion of graphene oxide (GO) to reduced graphene oxide (rGO) involves removing oxygen-containing functional groups from GO to restore its electrical conductivity and mechanical properties. Several methods to reduce GO include chemical, thermal, electrochemical, photochemical, and green reduction methods. Here is a brief overview of these methods:
1. Chemical reduction:
In chemical reduction, a reducing agent removes the oxygen functionalities from GO. The degree of reduction depends on the reducing agent, reaction conditions, and reaction time. Common reducing agents include hydrazine hydrate, sodium borohydride, and ascorbic acid. The reaction generally occurs under mild heating or room temperature, producing black rGO powder or suspension.
2. Thermal reduction:
Thermal reduction involves exposing GO to high temperatures (usually above 1000°C) in an inert or reducing atmosphere (e.g., argon or hydrogen). The high temperature causes the oxygen-containing functional groups to decompose, yielding rGO. This method often results in a more thermally stable and electrically conductive rGO than chemically reduced rGO.
3. Electrochemical reduction:
In electrochemical reduction, an electrical potential is applied to GO, typically dispersed in an electrolyte solution, which causes the reduction of the oxygen-containing functional groups. This method allows for better control over the reduction process by adjusting the applied potential.
4. Photochemical reduction:
Photochemical reduction exposes GO to light (e.g., ultraviolet or visible light) in the presence of a photocatalyst or photo-reducing agent. The light triggers a reduction reaction, leading to the formation of rGO. This method is considered environmentally friendly and offers the potential for large-scale Production.
5. Green reduction methods:
Green and eco-friendly methods for producing rGO use natural reducing agents such as plant extracts, bacteria, and other biological materials. These methods aim to provide a more sustainable and environmentally friendly approach to rGO production.
The choice of reduction method depends on the desired properties of the resulting rGO and the specific application requirements. It is essential to optimize the reduction process to balance the degree of reduction and the preservation of the structural integrity of the graphene lattice.
Why Choose Us
Shilpa enterprises are among the most trustworthy firms to supply and manufacture a research and industrial grade rGO. We have an experienced professional in this field and have expertise in product customization based on the requirements. We perform an extensive quality check to deliver the best products at affordable prices. We carter a customer base from Asia, Australia, UK, Europe, US, South America, the Middle East, and significant parts of Africa, thus demanding international quality products.
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