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Amine Graphene

Amine graphene powder is a functionalized form of graphene that is useful in several industries. It is responsible for the characteristics of chemical reactions. Functional groups are a collection...


What is graphene?

It is a type of carbon that has a two-dimensional hexagonal structure. Changing manufacturing procedures can turn it into zero-dimensional fullerenes, one-dimensional carbon nanotubes, and three-dimensional graphite. As a result, it acts as a base for other graphite compounds.

Description and Details of Graphene

Graphene is a single-layered two-dimensional honeycomb lattice-shaped allotrope of carbon. Stacking layers of it result in the formation of graphite that is another allotrope of carbon. The graphene exhibits exceptional properties that make it a semimetal acting as an electrical conductor and a thermal insulator. The connection of atoms shows sigma bonds, which are the strongest kind of covalent bonds. Carbon nanotubes exhibit similar bonds and properties. For centuries it has been present on earth; however, in 2004, Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov of the University of Manchester rediscovered it (initial observation in 1962) and were awarded the noble prize for the same.

It has four outer shells, out of which three occupy three sp2 hybrid orbitals. Here means that it shares a combination of orbitals s, px, and py forming a sigma bond with the nearest atoms having a length of 0.142 nanometers. Its charge carriers show a linear dependence of energy on momentum. It can also absorb light, which is why the color is black. However, if one notices a single layer, it looks transparent. This property helps it rule in the optical industry.

Research and Development

Researchers have been experimenting on the material for quite a long, resulting in many exciting applications. Some popular types are Monolayer sheets, Bilayer, molded, Nano coil, Crumpled, Nanoribbons, and ligand/complex. It also uses as a fiber, 3D, Pillared, Quantum dots, and Reinforced, all of which are finding in the last decade. There are also many ways to formulate; however, we use the Catalytic chemical vapor deposition method (CCVD).

It is one of the most needed products reaching a $9 million market within 8 years of its discovery and will probably lead to $150 million by this year, i.e., 2021. This is a result of its exceptional properties and vivid application areas that make it remarkable in nanotechnology.

How to use Graphene?

• Its powder has strong sigma bonds. Pure powder does not dissolve in water as it has a tough Van der Waals force of attraction, nor does it dissolve in any organic solvents. The best solvents to disperse it are Isopropyl Alcohol, ethanol, or Acetone. If the researchers desire, they can use methanol as well.

• Taking a desirable amount of powder, mix proportionate solvent in it.

• Then mix it well and apply coats of it on the surface.

• These solvents evaporate quickly, leaving behind the coats intact.

• We also have gel and functionalized, i.e., hydroxyl and carboxyl, which disperse in water. If required, we provide these products in dispersed form as well.

Safety Measures

• Although researchers at various universities debate whether it is toxic or not, studies prove that it is toxic in the processing phases. A small amount of exposure may not be harmful, but while the clients use it for experiments, they should take the utmost care.

• Various studies prove that when nanoparticles enter the respiratory tract and accumulate in the lungs, they may lead to cancer since the body does not know how to get rid of an inert foreign agent.

• We advise the researchers to wear protective equipment such as goggles, face shields, masks, gloves, and PPE kits.

• There are no proven health risks on external body parts. However, exposure in any form may irritate the skin, respiratory tract, and eyes.

• In case of exposure to eyes, wash them with cold water. If irritation or redness persists, seek medical help.

• Similarly, in the case of skin exposure, wash it with soap and water, and apply moisturizer.

• Exposure to the respiratory tract through the nose and mouth may cause a problem in breathing. In such a case, immediately rush to open air and breathe deeply.

• Always work in areas with well ventilation and light.

• Researchers should take care that the surface on which the product is placed should be dry and plain so that it easy to clean later.

• While cleaning the residue product that spills while experimenting, use a damp cloth. Do not blow the powder as the nanoparticles might blow hastily anywhere.

• While disposing of the waste, follow the regulations issued by the government for proper disposal.

Applications of Graphene

• Biomedical Applications

• It is potentially helpful to subdue the side effects of medical treatments. Its uses include

• Target drug delivery

• DNA sequencing by changing the behavior of cells

• DIY health test kits such as Diabetes monitoring using its sensor

• Brain penetration

• Cancer treatment

• Bone transplant

• Teeth transplant

• Dialysis

Sports Industry Applications

• It is beneficial for making sports equipment such as

• Helmets – Helmets for sports like cycling, bike, cricket, etc., use it as an additive in polymers to make the equipment stronger.

• Tiers: The material's thermal property allows it to become a great additive in sports vehicle tires such as bikes, cars, and F1 cars.

• Shoes: It is useful to produce durable and lightweight shoes for various activities.

Electronics Applications

• Energy storage – Using in batteries, solar cells, and rechargeable cells make them last longer and store the charge for a more extended period. Moreover, it helps them charge at a faster rate. Using it also reduces the weight of the batteries.

• Sensors - Functionalized proves to be an excellent chemical and biological sensor. It helps speed up the working of a sensor when it commingles with water. Moreover, pristine transistors can sense various gases.

• Wearable devices – Being light in weight and superconductor of electricity, it allows the batteries to be printed on the device, making the devices small and wearable. Moreover, it lasts long. It uses in e-textile, watches, phones, and many more.

• Inks/pastes/paints - It is popularly used in printing technology as it conducts electrical pulses on non-conducting surfaces. These inks generally utilize for screen-printing, coating, and many more purposes.

Food Industry Applications

• Packaging – membranes generally use for waterproof packaging of food products and medicines.

• Water filtration – About 97% of the water on earth is non-drinkable, either saline or dirty. Filters the water is eliminating dirt, bacteria, and salt from it, making it purest to consume at low cost.